all purpose flour - a blend of high and low protein flours. The blend makes it suitable for a wide range of baked goods.
al dente - used to describe how "done" pasta and vegetables are. It means that there should be some degree of resistance without being tough or soft.
bard - to tie fat around a food you are roasting to prevent it from drying out.
baste - to spoon or brush liquid over food while it is cooking to prevent it from drying out.
dredge - to lightly cook food with lour, cornmeal or breadcrumbs.
fond - the brown caramelised leftovers you get in the pa after cooking meat or fish. It is often used as the base for sauces.
glace - a sauce with a syruppy consistency.
knead - a method of working dough. It involves pressing, folding and turning the dough until well mixed.
mise en place - a French term for having all the ingredients you need prepped and ready to go as you begin cooking.
nap - to cover the food with a thin, even layer of sauce.
resting - to remove the meat before it reaches the ideal temperature in order to let the juices redistribute. This prevents drying out and makes the meat easier to carve.
roux - a mixture of flour and fat which is used to thicken sauces.
score - to make narrow marks in the surface of the food to help it tenderise or for decoration.
simmer - to cook gently over low heat. You should see tiny bubbles just below the surface of the liquid.
smoking point - the point where oil or butter starts to smoke and give off an unpleasant odour.
sweat - to cook food over low heat with a cover, usually in butter.